cross training

Practice Trail Running Series – Part 2

Our practice trail running series aims to help build a foundation from which you can train and race on trails with confidence. Throughout the articles, we will discuss running form, nutrition and hydration, proper gear, and race strategy. For this particular article, we are going to take a close look at why every runner should include cross-training in their routine. To conclude, we will also discuss the most common forms of cross training for trail running.

Why Cross-Train?

For a long time, the thought was that the only way to become a better runner was to run. Any activity that was not running did not help and could hurt your running performance. Nowadays, more and more coaches and athletes are realizing that this is just not true. Across all sports, athletes use cross-training to achieve their ultimate goal. A basketball player may complete regular plyometric exercises to improve foot speed and vertical jump. Football players will spend a lot of time power-lifting to improve maximal strength and explosiveness. So how can cross training improve your running performance?

First, many runners have poor muscular skeletal strength above the waist. We’re not necessarily talking about the size of your arms. More specifically, the influence of overall core, back, and shoulder strength on running. When running down a trail, picking your line, and bounding from side-to-side off uneven surfaces, your muscles have to respond differently. Each step brings a slight variation in arm swing and engagement of your core. Having a stronger core, back, and shoulders will improve running form and oxygen capacity. Strength in these muscle groups will also help propel your legs over hilly trails as the race miles add up.

Second, spending less time running and more time cross training will reduce the occurrence of impact related injuries. Fewer injuries occur not only from running less but from your body being stronger and more prepared to reduce impact forces with each stride. Combining cross-training with running may allow you to substitute 25 to 30 percent of your weekly mileage. Cross Training can be great news if you are suffering from a common running-related overuse injury.

We don’t expect you to spend hours in the gym lifting weights. We also don’t want you to think cross-training is the only key to becoming a better runner. You still need your regular dose of running long miles and days of interval work to build both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. After all, being on the trails is much more fun and the best way to know you have prepared for a race. However, a little cross training can go a long way in being a better runner and preventing injuries.

The key element of cross training is to mimic your trail running environment with exercises in all planes of motion. The activities also need to be completed with efficiency, use muscles that are closest to those used when running and put similar stresses on your aerobic system.

Strength or Resistance Training

Incorporating a couple of days per week of strength training into your running routine is probably the biggest bang for your run performance. Just 15 to 30 minutes per session can get your heart rate up, muscles burning, and have significant benefits to multiple aspects of running. From the right variety of strength training, you will, increase oxygen capacity, reduce body fat, and strengthen your muscles. Stronger muscles will result in less stress on your joints as well, which is critical to the longevity of your running career.

What strength work should you do?

Single leg exercises, box jumps, and variations of lunges all engage a variety of muscles with each repetition. Try giving yourself 20-minutes on one to two days per week to dedicate towards strength work. Pick four exercises (push-ups, squats, lunges, and leg raises for core, for example). Complete the workout in a circuit format, moving from one exercise to the next without rest, to keep your heart rate up. There are tons of exercises that you can do right from your home without ever picking up a single weight. We love the Runtastic Fitness App for its full variety of exercises, workouts, and video demonstrations. When it comes to strength work, the app takes the guessing out of what to do and how to do it.

There are all forms of cycling to meet almost everyone’s goals. Image by Brian Fancher Photography.


If you find yourself working through an injury or not getting enough aerobic benefit from other cross-training activities, then cycling may be worth a try. Cycling has the advantage of being a non-weight bearing activity that has similar aerobic benefits of running. Thus, with the reduction in impact on your body, you will be able to recover more quickly between sessions. Cycling, however, does use primarily the same leg muscles as running. So, use caution with how much you do during the key parts of your running season.

How to add cycling to your running routine?

There are a variety of ways to ride a bike that can have significant benefits to your running performance. Keeping a steady pace for a long ride will improve endurance. Riding uphill will build strength. Sprinting out of the saddle will improve speed. With cycling, there is also no limit to where you can ride. Head out on the roads, trails, or even participate in a spinning class. You could even cruise to your local grocery store or friends house. Just make sure you have the right equipment for the style of cycling and are fitted correctly on the bike.

Swimming can be done year round or used as a great tool for recovery from injury.


A little less common among runners is the cross training activity of swimming. However, this does not make it any less of a benefit to your running performance. Like cycling, swimming is a non-weight bearing activity and a low-injury sport. Using mostly your core, shoulders and arms, swimming gives your legs a break from all the pounding on the roads/trails. If you find yourself fighting running related injuries that are caused by muscle imbalances, then swimming may be your best choice. The whole body nature of swimming introduces a new range of motion in joints. Thus, improving your overall running form. Lastly, swimming allows for a large variety of workouts and technique drills that can hone in on weaknesses in your running.

How to add swimming to your running routine?

First, if not an experienced swimmer, then we suggest taking an adult swim classes or joining a Masters Club Swim Team. Here, you’ll find instructors that can quickly teach you the basics of technique and workout structure. Also, joining up with a swim group might lead to networking with other athletes that are like-minded.

Next, determine what your goals are for swimming. Are you looking for recovery from run sessions? Then, focus on drills and strokes that use arms, and fewer leg muscles. Do you want to use swimming to improve anaerobic or aerobic fitness? Then, just like the running track, use short intervals for strength and long slow intervals for endurance. You may find you need to invest in some extra gear, such as a kickboard, flippers, or hand paddles. These additional tools will allow you to fine tune your swimming workouts to maximize the desired carry-over to running.

Yoga on the beach adds an extra element of relaxation. Image by Brian Fancher Photography.


Finally, if the thought of adding other activities to your running routine seems to increase your stress levels, then maybe a more holistic workout is right for you. There are a variety of styles of yoga classes to explore, all with significant benefits to your running performance. One example is power yoga. This form of yoga strengthens all muscle groups, improves flexibility and posture, reduces stress, and promotes conscious breathing. Yoga is available in all sorts of settings as well. From yoga specific studios, classes at gyms and recreation centers, and outdoor yoga, you’ll find yoga is in more places than you thought.

Developing a Cross Training Plan

Think of cross training as a supplement to your running routine. As highlighted, participating in different activities works muscle groups in other planes of motion and develops cardiovascular strength. The benefits of each activity can lend nicely to making you a more efficient and stronger trail runner. Pick an activity that focuses on your weaknesses in running, not one that further embellishes your strengths. Do your quads overpower your hamstrings? Do your arms get tired carrying that handheld bottle down the trail? Does your form fall apart on uphill or downhill running? Does your lower back get sore late in your long runs and races? These questions and others can help lead your decision on the right cross training activity for you.

Lastly, remember to scale up or scale down your cross training based on your running season. If you are currently in-season, then start with just one day per week of cross-training. Then, see how your body and running responds first before adding additional days. Always leave time in the year for complete recovery from running. We suggest focusing on more cross training and less running for 8 to 12 weeks each year. Your recovery periods could be all at one time or split up into 4-6 week sessions. Always leave an open mind to new activities becoming a passion just like trail running. You may find that your running performance reaches unimagined heights.

Other Areas of Discussion on Practice for Trail Running:


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